In substations, a huge amount of electricity cannot be stored for use later, thus it is required to produce electricity according to consumer demands. The different electrical sources at the substation should be capable of accomplishing the requirements of load at all times. If all the electrical loads that are connected to the substation or generator demand load concurrently, then it is not feasible to accomplish the requirements of the load. But the highest demand does not occur simultaneously. The highest load demands of different load centers happen at different time periods. So, we can design a smaller electrical source to supply the highest demands that happen at different time periods. So the important factor like the diversity factor shows how the various loads demand the highest loading throughout a particular time period of the day. This article provides brief information about a diversity factor, examples, and its applications.
What is the Diversity Factor/Definition of Diversity Factor?
The diversity factor in a power station can be defined as the ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands and the maximum demand on the power station.
Diversity Factor = Sum of individual max demands/Max demand on the power station.
The diversity factor (F_{D}) can be expressed mathematically as;
F_{D }= (D1+ D2+D3+D4+……+D_{n})/D_{g}.
Where FD is a diversity factor.
‘Dg’ is the maximum instantaneous demand of a collection of ‘n’ loads.
The diversity factor plays a key role in the determination of power generation cost. The importance of the diversity factor is, that if the diversity factor value is always >1 for a power station then the power generation cost will be lesser. The diversity factor is equivalent to unity only if all the individual demands happen simultaneously.
How Do You Calculate the Diversity Factor?
In an electrical substation, there are different types of loads connected to that substation which can be categorized as commercial, domestic, municipal, industrial, traction & irrigation. Thus, now we understand that the highest demands of connected loads to an electrical substation do not match. As an alternative, they happen in various time periods throughout the day. Due to this electrical load diversity, we can design a fairly lower capacity substation otherwise a related utility for larger connected loads.
For instance, if we assume an electrical substation as ‘X’ and P, Q, R, S & T are downstream substations that are connected to the ‘X’ substation. So the highest demand for these substations is ‘P’ megawatts, ‘Q’ megawatts, ‘R’ megawatts, ‘S’ megawatts, and ‘T’ megawatts correspondingly. The highest demand of the ‘X’ substation is ‘X’ megawatt, so the diversity factor of substitution is;
Diversity Factor = (P+Q+R+S+T)/X
Example for Calculation
A power transformer is connected to different loads like 1300 kW industrial load, 90 kW domestic load & 60 kW municipal load. The highest demand for the P.T. (power transformer) is 1500 kW. So the diversity factor of this power transformer would be;
Diversity factor = (1300+90+60)/1500 = 0.9
Diversity Factor Table
The diversity factor table for the distribution network is shown below.
System Elements |
Commercial | Residential | Large Industrial |
General Power |
Between Different Transformers |
1.3 | 1.3 | 1.05 | 1.35 |
Between Different Substations |
1. 10 | 1. 10 | 1. 10 |
1. 10 |
Between Different Feeders | 1. 15 | 1. 15 | 1. 05 |
1. 15 |
Between Individual Users |
1. 46 | 2 | – | 1. 45 |
Users to Different Transformers | 1. 46 | 2 | – |
1. 44 |
Users to Substation |
3 | 2. 18 | 1. 3 2 | 2. 24 |
Users to Generating Station | 2. 40 | 3.29 | 1. 45 |
2. 46 |
Users to Feeder |
1. 90 | 2. 60 | 1. 15 | 1. 95 |
Users to Generating Station | 2. 40 | 3.29 | 1. 45 |
2. 46 |
Advantages and Disadvantages
The advantages of the diversity factor include the following.
- The power station’s diversity factor is above 1 always so the power generation cost is lesser.
- The diversity factor helps in the determination of the price of power generation.
- It offers a correction factor to utilize which results in a less total power load mainly for the ten AC units.
- The diversity factor shows how the various loads demand maximum loading throughout a particular time period in a day.
- It can be ignored in the case of the final subcircuit.
- Diversity factors within the installation of electrical wiring may be ignored in offices or those places where all loads connected work at one time except in buildings & homes.
The disadvantages of the diversity factor include the following.
- If the diversity factor value is one then it is a poor diversity factor.
- If the diversity factor is lower, then the generation of power cost is higher.
Applications
The applications of the diversity factor include the following.
- The diversity factor is used generally for various engineering-based topics like completing a coordination study of a system.
- This is used to guess the load of a specific node within the system.
- A diversity factor is used to show how the loads demand the highest loading in a particular time period of the day.
- By using the diversity factor we can find the total load current.
- It helps in determining the capability of the plant equipment.
- It is used in the electrical engineering field, mainly in the electrical system design & analysis.
- This aids in sizing the equipment more precisely.
- The diversity factor helps in sizing the equipment more accurately by accounting for the possibility that not all connecting loads will be functioning at their highest simultaneously.
When Load Factor and Diversity Factor Increases Dash?
The diversity factor and load factor play a significant role in the cost of electrical energy supply. When the value of both diversity & load factors are higher then, the cost will be lower for each unit generated.
What is Meant by the Diversity Factor?
The ratio of the average load above a specified period to the highest demand happening in that period is known as the diversity factor.
What is the Plant Capacity Factor and Diversity Factor?
The plant capacity factor is the ratio of actual produced energy to the highest achievable energy produced throughout a specified period whereas the diversity factor is the ratio of the summation of the individual highest demand on the power station.
Thus, this is an overview of a diversity factor, calculation, truth table, and its applications. The diversity factor is defined mainly for loads, feeders, generating stations & substations. Generally, the highest demands of the customers do not happen simultaneously. The diversity factor can be > 1 or equal to 1. Here is a question for you, what is the demand factor?