We know that electric motors play an essential role in different sectors. At present, there are numerous types of motor available in the market but, these are more different as well as flexible than ever before. The classification of these motors can be done based on its operation and its applications. The main parts of the motors are windings like field winding and armature winding. Motors are the most important machines for motion control systems but its selection can be done based on the cost as well as its application. This article discusses what is electric motor and types of electric motor.
Different Types of Electric Motor
A motor is an electro-mechanical device, used to change one form of energy (electrical) to other (mechanical) to generate rotational force. The working principle of the motor mainly depends on the communication of two fields like electrical and magnetic.
There are three kinds of electric motors available like AC motors, DC motors & special purpose motors. As an input, AC motors use AC whereas the DC motors use DC.
AC motor can be defined as, the motor which changes the AC energy to mechanical using an electromagnetic induction principle. AC motors work with AC and the main parts of this motor are stator as well as the rotor. In motor, the stator is an immobile part whereas the rotor is a rotary part.
Please refer to this link to know more AC Motor.
Different Types of AC Motors
AC motors are classified into two types like synchronous motors and asynchronous motors.
1). Synchronous Motor
In a synchronous motor, the revolution of the rotor can be synchronized through the frequency of the current supply and the motor speed remains stable under unstable loads. These motors are suitable for driving equipment at a stable speed. These are applicable in various devices which has high accuracy position such as machines, robots, process control as well as instrumentation.
2). Asynchronous Motor/ Induction Motor
An induction motor/asynchronous motor is a kind of AC motor. In this motor, the current supply of the rotor is required to generate torque. This can be attained through electromagnetic induction of the stator winding. The rotor used in this motor is wound type/squirrel cage type. These motors operate at less speed, so named as asynchronous motors.
Direct Current (DC) Motor is the most frequently used device, used for generating nonstop movement and where speed control is required like to control the rotation speed, servo type control, etc. This motor includes two parts namely Stator and Rotor, where these two parts are stationary and rotating.
Please refer to this link to know more DC Motor: Construction, Working & Its Applications.
Different Types of DC Motors
Understanding the various kinds of direct current motors will also assist you to understand how they are utilized in various applications and which type of motor is suitable for a specific application.
Please refer to this link to know more Types of DC Motors: Working & Its Applications.
Types of Special Motors
There are different kinds of special motors are available in the market. They are
- Stepper Motor
- Brushless DC Motors
- Hysteresis Motor
- Reluctance Motor
- Universal Motor
1). Stepper Motor
This is a brushless DC motor and it rotates in steps. This motor is extremely useful as it can be exactly located without using a feedback sensor, which signifies like an open-loop controller. This motor comprises a rotor which is known as a permanent magnet, surrounded by the stator’s windings. When we stimulate the windings slowly in a particular order & allow the flow of current through the windings to magnetize the stator, and electromagnetic poles will cause impulsion to the motor. So this is the stepper motor’s basic working principle.
2). Brushless DC Motors
A brushless DC motor or BLDC motor is commuted electronically and it does not include any brushes. The controller gives current pulses to the windings in the motor for controlling the torque as well as the speed of the synchronous motor. The main features of this motor include outstanding controllability, high efficiency and broadly used in several applications. The main advantages of this motor are power-saving compared with other types of electric motor.
Please refer to this link to know more BLDC Motor – Types, Operation & Purposes
3). Hysteresis Motor
This is a synchronous motor with a consistent air gap & lacking DC excitation. It uses a single-phase supply as well as a three-phase supply to operate. The toque in this motor can be generated because of induced eddy current as well as hysteresis by the act of the rotary flux in the stator windings. This motor working mainly depends on the magnetic flux which rotates constantly.
In this motor, the stator winding includes two single-phase supply for the operation of the spit phase. This stator winding is allied to the single-phase supply for starting as well as the running of the motor. In this motor, the rotor is designed with a steel cylinder with smooth chrome and it doesn’t contain any winding. This motor has high resistivity so it is extremely hard to modify the magnetic polarities which cause through the rotating flux of the rotor. The rotor in the motor travels synchronously because the pole is magnetically locked by the stator.
4). Reluctance Motor
This electric motor encourages magnetic poles which are non-permanent on the ferromagnetic rotor. Torque can be generated when the magnetic reluctance occurs in the motor. These motors are classified into different type’s namely synchronous, variable, switched reluctance and variable reluctance stepping motor. These motors generate extremely high-power density with less cost, used in several applications.
The main drawbacks of this motor are, when high-torque ripple is operated wt low speed, then noise can be caused through torque ripple.
5). Universal Motor
This is a unique type of motor, which works by using either direct current otherwise single-phase AC supply. So these motors are called as universal motors. In these motors, the two windings like armature & field are connected in series, known as series-wound. This motor generates high starting torque. So these motors come built into the device. These motors work at high speeds, above 3500 RPM. There are two kinds of universal motor available in the market like compensated type & uncompensated type. Thus, this is all about different types of electric motors.
Thus, this is all about the types of electric motor. At present these are more different and flexible. The selection of a motor is very important in the motion controlling of a system. The electric motor has to align with the entire performance goals & purpose of the system. Some of the most frequently used motors are discussed above. Here is a question for you, what are special motors?