In the ancient period itself, the concept of a good pump has discovered and moved on that period, there were many progressions and changes that happened in the development of the pump’s design, construction, functioning, and others. The one kind of pump which we are going to discuss today is “Submersible Pump”. In the year 1916, Armais Sergeevich Arutunoff initially coined this pump, and the first usage was after the 1950’s only.
Initially, these submersible pumps were designed to implement in the industries of mining, water wells, and shipping. Then, the modifications in the design of the pump allowed to use in oil wells too. With the additional improvements in Arutunoff’s design, many kinds of submersible pumps were evolved and those were now in implementation in many industries. So, this article is all about a submersible pump, working, benefits, and many others.
What is a Submersible Pump?
The pump is a mechanical device used to lift water from a low level to a high (or) low-pressure region to a high-pressure region. The main function of the pump is to change the energy from mechanical to liquid flow. The received energy from the liquid will be utilized to lift pressure. Nowadays, the submersible pump has gained a lot of popularity because these pumps are mostly used on farms.
These pumps are arranged within the water. Similar to other kinds of water pumps, these pumps come in a broad range of types where each type of pump has its own applications. The pumps which are used in farms are applicable in wells, boreholes, and concrete water tanks. When used as a water distribution system, submersible pumps have certain advantages and disadvantages.
Definition: As the name suggests, the submersible pump is one kind of electric water pump and it is submerged fully within the water. An electric motor is sealed hermetically and connected closely to the pump. Designers of these pumps can design several general types of water pumps for making them appropriate for immersion. The motors used in these pumps are covered with oil-filled compartments that don’t have a connection with the substance they are pushing.
Submersible Pump Working Principle
The working principle of this pump is, it pushes the underground water to the surface through changing energy from rotary to kinetic and finally into pressure energy. This process can be done through the water being dragged into the water pump first, where the revolution of the impeller drives the water using the diffuser. So from this, it supplies to the outside.
These pumps are considered multi-level centrifugal pumps operating in the vertical position. Fluids that are augmented by impeller will drop off their kinetic energy in the diffuser and here the conversion of kinetic energy to pressure happens. This is the fundamental principle of both mixed flow and radial pumps. Whereas in the hydraulic submersible pumps, the motor is of hydraulic type other than the electric ones and in the case of closed-cycle the power liquid is kept isolated from the generated liquid. And in the open cycle, there will be a mixing of the generated fluid and the power fluid with that of surface isolation.
The shaft of the pump is connected either to the protector or gas separator through mechanical coupling at the pump bottom side. The liquid moves into the pump via the ingesting screen and is then elevated by the pump levels. The other components consist of bushings that are located all across the shaft length thus offering radial assistance to the shaft. In most cases, a thrust bearing handles a portion of the axial forces that arise in the pump, but these forces are maximumly captivated through the protector’s thrust bearing. There even exist various types of screw kind submersible pumps, where there will be a steel screw that operates as a functioning component. This screw permits the pump to operate water even in extreme impurity conditions.
Selection of Submersible Pump
The selection of this pump can be done based on several specifications. But selecting the right pump is important to enhance the achievement of the system. Mostly, these pumps are selected based on their type and application. After that, the utmost flow of discharge can be decided.
The maximum flow of these pumps can be decided by the pressure head. After that, consideration needs to provide to the highest discharge force of the water pump.
These pumps are estimated in terms of hp (horsepower), and it is a calculation of mechanical energy. Horsepower can be defined as the work which is generated at a rate of 550 foot-pounds for every second, and it is equivalent to the energy of 745.7 watts. At last, the expulsion size of submersible pumps must be estimated. The estimated value has reference to the exit connections of pumps.
Types of Submersible Pumps
A few of the basic types of submersible pumps and are described below:
Bladder pumps are considered a positive movement, pneumatically functioned, and non-interactive pumps that utilize compressed air. It has a casing that surrounds a supple bladder and this is constructed of polyethylene. Beneath the bladder, there will be a connection of screen and this is used to sieve any components those might combine with the check valves. These bladder pumps are function either by compressed nitrogen tanks, air, and air compressors.
These kinds of submersible pumps are mostly suggested for ecological sampling having greater depths almost above 28 ft and basically for wells. To implement bladder pumps for the sampling of groundwater, then a controller is necessary where this permits for the flow rate handling.
Submersible utility pumps are so unique and multi-usage pumps.
There any many features available in this kind of pump. The characteristics are:
- Variable speed pumps function at a certain speed rate chosen by the operator
- Continuous duty pumps keep delivering complete performance maintained at 100 percent duty cycles.
- Self-priming pumps are used for the creation and maintenance of exact vacuum levels adequate for the ingestion of fluid having no kind of outer support.
- Even utility pumps come up with the features of having suction, battery management, grinding machine, and thermal excess load shielding.
These submersible well pumps are constructed to function below the ground’s surface. Similar to the sump which is in most homes, this pump will not function properly if it is not completely immersed in the fluid. Again, these are classified as deep-well and shallow-well submersible pumps. In general, a submersible well pump has a cylinder that is 3-5 inches in width. Sealing of the motor averts the flow of water to come inside and thus prevents short-circuiting for the motor.
These are utilized for supplying water for fountains and for the machines that are utilized for aesthetic situations and for aeration in engineering, and commercial applications. Fountain pumps are even constructed for the user either internally or externally and those are designed based on the pool size and many other factors. Even a few of the fountain pumps are energized by solar power and they operate along with the good pump to generate landscape scenarios like that of waterfalls.
A few of the other kinds of submersible pumps are:
- Borehole pumps
- Grinder pumps
- Stainless steel
- Bottom suction
It is a wastewater transportation device that pumps the wastewater from household appliances like bathtubs, toilets, washing machines. The wastewater pumping can be done through the pipes used in homes to holding tanks. When the wastewater in the tank attains a precise level, the will be turned on to crush the wastage into a well slurry then it pumps into the septic tank. The installation of these pumps can be done within the yard or basement.
Deep Well Pumps
These pumps are one kind of submersible pump that is used in municipal areas. This pump is placed underwater by connecting with the motor for running. Once the pumps begin working, they have to submerge into the water totally. These pumps are used to push freshwater as well as light acidic water.
Stainless Steel Pumps
These pumps are complete covers with stainless steel and have acidic resistance highly. These pumps are used to push light acidic water and warm water frequently. The water source like well can be protected through its unique cast so that freshwater moves normally. The whole pump can be submerged within the water while it’s working.
Bottom Suction Pumps
Bottom suction pumps are used in lakes, rivers, pools, and mining dewatering. The design of these pumps can be done using a guide sleeve beneath the water pump. These pumps utilize the water from the bottom of the pump and also include a high-class cooling characteristic of an electric motor. The evaluation of these pumps compare with other types of pumps is easy while its installation, which contains a tall head.
Water Cooler Pumps
Generally, these pumps are used in the areas of industrial, irrigation, and residential. These pumps are used underwater like oil full pumps. The operation of this pump can be done by connecting a motor like a water cooler submersible for operating under the water. These pumps are used to push the water wherever high-quality water is used.
Oil Filled Pumps
These pumps use oil-filled immersion motors and these are used in wells, irrigation, water supply for drainage systems in industries for pushing clean water, and hill residential mountain areas, etc. The motors within the pump can be cooled by filling oil in the heated motors. So that the motor can get cool. Fitting these is extremely handy and easy.
Some other types of submersible pumps are fountain, axial & mixed flow, borehole, utility pumps, etc.
Advantages & Disadvantages
The advantages of submersible pumps include the following.
- These pumps are extremely efficient
- A lot of the energy can be conserved
- Handles solids & liquids
- These pumps become quiet in the water
- These pumps are versatile
- No priming is necessary
- Greater efficiency
- Both solids and liquid are managed easily
- Internal pressure is enough for pumping of water inside and no additional components are required
- These pumps have no cavitation problems
- When the water flows throughout the pump, then cavitation doesn’t occur due to no “spike” within the water force.
The disadvantages of submersible pumps include the following.
- The seals of the pump can become damaged over time.
- Caution must be taken for motors in pumps from overheat.
- It does not apply to all the applications.
- These pumps are hard to recognize as well as fix injures like cracks.
- It is expensive due to its mechanical nature
- As submersible pumps are sealed, this sealing gets rusted with time. Because of this water enters the motor and damages the device.
- Repairing of the system is complicated
- Every usage requires different kinds of pumps, and one pump is not enough for all purposes.
- If not completely immersed, there will happen huge damage
- When water is not sufficient it may cause overheating too
Applications of Submersible Pump
The applications of these pumps include the following.
- Submersible pumps are used in drainage, slurry & sewage pumping, water, and oil wells, saltwater handling, dirt treatment, drilling of the deep well, artificial lifts irrigation, fire fighting, mine dewatering, etc.
- These pumps are also used in the Navy, mining, rescue, fire services, and wastewater services.
- Single-stage pumps are utilized for slurry pumping, sewage, industrial and drainage purposes.
- Multi-stage pumps are implemented in municipal, engineering, and commercial applications.
- Sewage treatment, drilling rigs, irrigation, oil wells, and artificial lifts.
- Submersible pumps are even utilized in the production of oil to offer a comparatively effective type of “artificial lift”, which is able to function all among various ranges of depths and sped flow.
1). Can submersible pumps run dry?
Submersible pumps will be dried when the fluid level crosses below the minimum level.
2). Why does a submersible motor fail?
The main cause of submersible motor fail is overheating and it damages the motor too.
3). Are submersible pumps better?
Submersible pumps are better because they have great efficiency and also need less energy for pushing water up.
4). What is the full form of the CRI pump?
In correspondence to the organization’s philosophy, CRI means Commitment, Reliability, and Innovation and it developed as a domestic term for pumping solutions.
5). How long will a submersible pump last?
Submersible pumps will have a life span of 8-10 years when these are utilized moderately, they can last up to 15 years.
Thus, this is all about an overview of the submersible pump. Finally, this is a comprehensive overview of submersible pumps, how they operate, the types involved in these pumps, how they are chosen based on the purpose and their applications. From the range of 20 Lpm to that of 28,000 LPm, there are various kinds of these pumps available. So this pump can also be used as a water supply source in populated residential areas. The benefits of this pump mainly include low initial cost, quiet operation, etc. Here is a question for you, what is submersible pump efficiency?